What is Hyponatremia?


Are you actively involved in running, biking or any other physically engaging fitness regime? Then the following information on hyponatremia should be of interest to you. Read on…

What is Hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia is a condition that is caused by having a low sodium concentration in the blood. Sodium helps to maintain the balance of water in and around body cells. It also helps in maintaining normal blood pressure, supporting the functions of muscles and nerves as well as balancing fluids in the body.

A low concentration of sodium causes swelling to body cells due to a rise in the body’s water levels. Hyponatremia has less severe symptoms. However, a rapid decrease of sodium levels can result into a coma or death.

Causes of hyponatremia include;

  • Liver, kidney and heart diseases
  • Severe diarrhea and vomiting
  • Drinking too much water during endurance sporting activities such as marathons

Signs and symptoms

  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Seizures
  • Lack of energy and fatigue
  • Vomiting
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability

Prevention and Cure

Adequate hydration is one of the preventive measures as well as monitoring the colour of your urine. Dark urine means you are dehydrated while clear and diluted urine shows that your body has enough fluids. Your doctor may suggest a high-salt diet which includes foods that are rich in sodium such as salt, soy sauce and a reduction of your water intake.


Whether you are a seasoned athlete or an on and off exerciser, getting the right amount of water before, during and after exercise is important. Water is important for the following: –

  • lubricating your body joints
  • regulating your body temperature
  • transporting nutrients to vital body organs

Ensure you are properly hydrated in order to stay healthy, strong and fit by drinking enough water and fluids. Check the color of your urine in order to check e you are hydrated or not. If your urine is colorless or slightly yellow, you are well hydrated. Dark yellow urine is a sign that you lack proper hydration.


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